Window and Flat Glass for Historical Archaeologists

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Compiled By David Moyer
This Version: February 2001


For Correction, Comments, or additions, please contact:

David Moyer, RPA
Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist
700 Clinton Street Building
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52240
Phone: (319) 335-5702
Email: david-moyer@uiowa.edu


Antiques (1938)
Decorative Window-panes of the 1830s. Antiques 33(2):81-82.

Ashurst, Denis (1971)
Excavations at Gawber Glasshouse, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Post-Medieval Archaeology 4:92-140. (Excavation of a glasshouse that manufactured window glass from about 1700 to 1821).

(1987) Excavations at the 17th-18th Century Glasshouse at Bolsterstone and the 18th century Bolsterstone pot house, Stocksbridge, Yorkshire' Post-Medieval Archaeology 21:147-226.

Bain, Trevor (1964)
The Impact of Technological Change on the Flat Glass Industry and the Unions' Reactions to Change: Colonial Period to the Present. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkley, California.

Ball, Donald B. (1983)
Approaches Toward the Dating of 19th Century Ohio Valley Flat Glass. In Proceedings on the Symposium on Ohio Valley Urban and Historic Archaeology, edited by Donald B. Ball and Philip J. DiBlasi, pp. 129-137. Archaeological Survey, University of Louisville, Kentucky.

Barkey, Frederick A. (1988)
Cinder Heads in the Hills: the Belgian Window Glass Workers of West Virginia. Humanities Foundation of West Virginia, Charleston.

Bastin, Jules Edward (1921)
The Window Glass Industry. Unpublished A.B. thesis, Indiana University, Indianapolis.

Bastow, Harry (1920)
American Glass Practice. The Glassworker, Pittsburgh.

Baxter, M.J. and H.E.M. Cool (1991)
An Approach to Quantifying Window Glass. In 'CAA90: Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 1990, Kris Lockyear and Sebastian Rahtz, eds., pp. 127-131, BAR International Series S565, Oxford.

Bayley, Justine and Catherine Mortimer (1991)
The Glass from Site 95, Wharram Percy, Yorkshire. Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 48/91, English Heritage, London. (Use of SEM in dating window glass).

Bendelow, Stuart W. (1962)
The Flat Glass Industry of Illinois. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois.

Biser, Benjamin F. (1899)
Elements of Glass and Glassmaking. Glass and Pottery Publishing Company, Pittsburgh.

Boon, George C. (1966)
Roman Window Glass from Wales. Journal of Glass Studies 8:41-45.

Borel, Edward (1958)
A Drawn Sheet Glass Process of 1871. Glass Industry 39(9):482-483, 509-510

Brightman, Anna (1968)
Window Treatments for Historic Houses, 1700-1850. Preservation Leaflet Series 14. National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C.

Byrne, Richard O. (1981)
Conservation of Historic Window Glass. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 8(3):3-10.

Chadwick, D.J. and John D. Shepard (1991)
Medieval Painted Window Glass. In Archaeology in Bath 1976-1985, Peter Davenport, ed., pp. 26-29, Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph, Oxford, UK.

Chance, H. (1967)
Records and the Nailsea [Somerset] Glassworks. Connoisseur 165:168-72. (Manufacturers of crown glass from 1844 onwards, and rolled plate glass beginning in the 1860s).

Chance, Henry (1883)
Crown and Sheet Glass. In The Principles of Glassmaking, edited by Harry J. Powell, pp. 101-139. George Bell and Sons, London.

Charlesworth, Dorothy (1977)
Roman Window Glass from Chichester, Sussex. Journal of Glass Studies 19:182.

Cohen, Allison E. (1992)
Using Window Glass to Interpret Archaeological Context. Unpublished senior honors thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

Cole, William (1987)
The Netherlandish Window Glass in the Church of St John the Evangelist, Rownhams, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society 43:175-84.

Cooper, William (1835)
The Crown Glass Cutter and Glazier's Manual. Oliver and Boyd. Edinburgh.

Courtney, P. (1988)
Some References to Ceramics and Glass in the Wynn of Gwydir Papers. Medieval and Later Pottery in Wales 10:65-9. (Contains some rather cryptic references to window glass of Normandy and Burgundy type are given in letters dated early 17th century).

Cox, G.A. and A.M. Pollard (1981)
The Multivariate Analysis of Data Relating to the Durability of Medieval Window Glass. Review of Arch'ometry 5:119-128.

Cramp, Rosemary (1976)
Window Glass from the Monastic Site of Jarrow. Journal of Glass Studies 17:88-96.

Crossley, D.W. (1967)
Glassmaking in Bagot's Park, Staffordshire, in the 16th Century. Post-Medieval Archaeology 1:44-83. (Manufacture of crown and possibly cylinder glass).

David, Anthony (1987)
A Survey of the Technology and Conservation of Plain Window Glass. Conservation News 34 (London) 34:16-19.

Davies, Isabel (1973)
Window Glass in Eighteenth Century Williamsburg. In Five Artifact Studies, pp. 78-79. Colonial Williamsburg Occasional Papers in Archaeology No. 1, Williamsburg, Virginia.

Davis, Pearce (1949)
The Development of the American Glass Industry. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Dell'Acqua, Francesca (1997)
Ninth-Century Window Glass from the Monastery of San Vincenzo al Volturno (Molise, Italy). Journal of Glass Studies 39: 33-41.

Dodd, George (1853)
The Curiosities of Industry: Glass and its Manufacture. George Routledge and Company, London.

Douglas, R.W. and Susan Frank (1972)
A History of Glassmaking. G.T. Foulis and Company, Ltd., Henley on Thames, UK.

Egan, Geoff, Susan D. Hanna, and Barry Knight. (1986)
Marks on Milled Window Leads. Post-Medieval Archaeology 20: 303-309.

Fowle, Arthur E. (1924)
Flat Glass. The Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Company. Toledo.

Gamlen, John (1973)
Medieval Window Glass from the Priory, Kings Langley. Hertfordshire Archaeology 3:73-77.

Gessner, Frank M., ed. (1891)
Glassmaker's Handbook: Containing Recipes for Making Flint, Bottle, Window and Architectural Glass.... George E. Williams, Pittsburgh.

Gillies, Katherine and Alwyn Cox (1983)
Medieval Window Glass: Its Composition and Decay. In 'The Proceedings of the 22nd Symposium on Archaeometry held at the University of Bradford, Bradford, UK, 30th March - 3rd April 1982, A. Aspinall and S.E. Warren, eds., pp. 181-183, University of Bradford Schools of Physics & Archaeological Sciences, Bradford, UK.

(1988) Decay of Medieval Stained Glass at York, Canterbury and Carlisle. Part 1: Composition of the Glass and its Weathering Products; Part 2: Relationship Between the Composition of the Glass, its Durability, and the Weathering Products. Glastechnische Berichte 61:75-84 and 101-107. (Examines decomposition by means of XRF spectrometry).

Gillot, E.H. (1979)
A History of Trade-unions in the Window Glass Industry out of which Grew the Window Glass Cutters League of America. Window Glass Cutters League of America, Columbus, Ohio. (This story appeared in serial form in the Glass cutter, beginning in March and ending in September, 1943; available as a single document on microform, Microfilming Corp. of America, Sanford, North Carolina).

Glass House Clerk (1974)
The Plate Glass Book. 4th Edition. Glass House Clerk, London.

Grange, Roger T. Jr. (1975)
An Extension of the Formula Dating Method in Clay Pipes, Wine Bottles, and Window Glass. The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 10. University of South Carolina, Columbia.

Harden, D.B. (1961)
Domestic Window Glass: Roman, Saxon and Medieval. In Studies in Building History, edited by E.M. Jope, pp. 39-63. Odhams Press, London.

Harris, H.G. (1883)
Plate Glass. In The Principles of Glassmaking. edited by Harry J. Powell, pp. 140-72. George Bell and Sons, London, England.

Hasluck, Paul N., ed. (1899)
Glass Working by Heat and Abrasion. Cassell and Company, Ltd., New York.

Heffron, J.F. (1926)
History of Glassmaking: Introduction to Machine Methods; Window Glass. Glass Container 6:9-30.

Henrickson, William F. (1898)
Complete History of the Manufacture of Window Glass Together with a Review of Labor Organizations, also Many Interesting and Instructive Sketches and Humorous Reminiscences Connected with the Trade. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Holmes, Sean P. (1987)
Conflict and Cooperation: Labour-Management Relations in the Toledo Flat Glass Industry, 1941-48. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Howett, Catherine M. (1983)
Reflections on the Picture Window. Journal of American Culture 6: 26-37.

Hutton, Kenneth. (1987)
Windows Inscribed Dairy. Vernacular Architecture 18: 52-53.

Ison, Betty Sue (1990)
Window Glass in Kentucky, 1790 to 1940: Potential Characteristics and Variation of the Archaeological Assemblage as Produced by the Processes of Manufacture, Distribution, Use, and Deposition. Unpublished M.A. thesis, department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Jarves, Deming (1865)
Reminiscences of Glassmaking. Hurd and Houghton, New York.

Jones, Olive R., and Catherine Sullivan (1985)
The Parks Canada Glass Glossary for the Description of Containers, Tableware, Flat Glass, and Closures. National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Keener, William G. (1988)
Window Glass and Spirit Bottles: A Fragile Industry Begins. Timelines 5:46-50.

Keyes, Homer (1937)
Early Window Glass. Antiques 32(2):69.

Kimes, Arthur, W. and Thomas A. Kimes (1930)
Directory of Glass Factories in the United States and Canada: Embracing Manufacturers of Pressed and Blown Ware, Specialties, Cut Glass and Tubing, Bottles and Hollow Ware, Window Glass, Polished Plate Glass, Wire, Opalescent, Fancy Figured, Rough and Ribbed, Glass Tile, Laminated, Glass Trade Associations, Workingmen's Associations. Budget Publishing Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Klosterman, John Philip (1964)
Evaluation of Fragments of Window Glass as Evidence in Criminal Cases. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Michigan State University. School of Police Administration and Public Safety, East Lansing, Michigan.

Knittle, Rhea Mansfield (1927)
Early American Glass. The Century Company, New York.

Kohlmaier, Georg (1986)
Houses of Glass: A Nineteenth Century Building Type. Translated by John C. Harvey MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. (History of greenhouses).

Kowal, Leo B. (1960)
Flat-Drawn Glass. In Manufacturing Processes in Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Kukla, Jon (1978)
Rebels and Governors: Reflections on a Stained-glass Window. Virginia Cavalcade 27(3):124-127.

Lardner, Dionysius, ed. (1972)
The Manufacture of Porcelain and Glass. History of Technology Series No. 4, Noyes Press, Park Ridge, New Jersey. (Unabridged reproduction of first edition published in London in 1832).

Louw, H. J. (1983)
The Origin of the Sash Window. Architectural History 26:49-72.

(1993) `The advantage of a clearer light': The Sash-Window as a Harbinger of an Age of Progress and Enlightenment. In Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought. Ben Farmer and Hentie Louw, eds., pp. 300-308. Routledge, New York.

Lowry, Bates (1986)
American Decorative Window Glass, 1860-1890: the Home as a Heaven Below. National Building Museum, Washington, D.C.

Marks, Richard (1991)
Window Glass. In English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products, John Blair and Nigel Ramsey, eds., pp. 265-294, Hambledon Press, London.

McGraith, Raymond and A.C. Frost (1937)
Glass in Architecture. Architectural Press, London.

McKearin, George and Helen McKearin (1941)
American Glass. Crown Publishers, New York.

Moir, Randall W. (1982)
Windows on the Past: A Chronological Scheme for the Thickness of Pane Fragments from 1635-1982. Report on file. National Park Service, Midwest Archaeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.

(1987) Socioeconomic and Chronometric Patterning of Window Glass. In Historic Buildings, Material Culture, and People of the Prairie Margin: Architecture, Artifacts, and Synthesis of Historic Arch'ology. 5, edited by David H. Jurney and Randall W. Moir, pp. 73-81. Richland Creek Technical Series. Archaeology Research Program, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX.

Monro, William L. (1926)
Window Glass in the Making. American Window Glass Company, Pittsburgh.

Myers, John H. (1981)
The Repair of Historic Wooden Windows. United States Department of the Interior, Technical Preservation Services Division, Preservation Assistance Division, Washington, D.C.

Neuckermans, Herman (1993)
A `Thick' Description of Windows. In Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought. Ben Farmer and Hentie Louw, eds., pp. 362-367. Routledge, New York.

Newton, Roy I. (1976)
The Weathering of Medieval Window Glass. Journal of Glass Studies 17:161-168.

New York Museum of Science and Industry (1934)
Window Glass from Early Times to the Present. Department of Education, New York Museum of Science and Industry, New York.

Noel Hume, Ivor (1997)
A Window on Williamsburg. Colonial Williamsburg 20(1):32-39.

O'Connor, Richard J. (1991)
Cinderheads and Iron Lungs: Window Glass Craftsmen and the Transformation of Workers' Control, 1880-1905. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

(1997) Perfecting the 'Iron Lung': Making the New Window Glass Technology Work. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 23(1): 6-24.

Old House Journal (1974)
Windows and Parts. Old House Journal 2(6):7-9.

Orser, Charles E., Jr. (n.d.)
A Mean Flat Glass Dating Method for the Southeastern Unites States. Unpublished manuscript on file, Southeast Archaeological Center, Tallahassee, Florida.

Overstreet, M. Alan (1982)
An Archaeological Study of Nineteenth Century U.S. and Historic "Old Goshen" Window Glass. Unpublished manuscript on file, Department of Anthropology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

(1985) Studies of Fingerprinting Historic Nineteenth Century Window Glass. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Owens, Datford Dean, Jr. (1995)
Window Glass Quantification and its Implications for Traditional Dating Techniques. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Symposium on Ohio Valley Urban and Historic Archaeology, Greenville, Ohio.

Pacey, Antony (1971)
Re: Window Glass. Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 3(4):11.

(1981) A History of Window Glass Manufacture in Canada. Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 13(3):33-47.

(1982) Talk to Me of Windows: A Glossary. Old House Journal 10(4):73-76.

Parkin, R.A. (2000)
The Window Glass Makers of St. Helens. Society for Glass Technology, London.

Peddle, C.J. (1927)
Defects in Glass. Glass Publications, Ltd., London.

Perrson, Rune (1969)
Flat Glass Technology. Plenum Press, New York.

W.E. Philips Company, Ltd. (1928)
Ultra Violet Therapy and the Use of Special Window Glass. W.E. Philips Company, Ltd., Oshawa, Ontario.

Pilkington, Alastair (1976)
Flat Glass: Evolution and Revolution over 60 Years. Glass Technology 17(5).

Pilkington ACI, Ltd. (1988)
The Glass Ribbon: Development of the Australian Flat Glass Industry. Pilkington ACI, Ltd., Melbourne, Australia.

Pitts, Steven J. (1990)
Discrimination of Flat Glass by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Methods. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Calgary.

Roenke, Karl G. (1978)
Flat Glass: Its Use as a Dating Tool for Nineteenth Century Archaeological Sites in the Pacific Northwest and Elsewhere. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, Memoir 4, Moscow, Idaho.

Rogers, Frances and Alice Beard (1937)
5000 Years of Glass. Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York.

Rosenhain, Walter (1908)
Glass Manufacture. Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd., London.

Roth, Ronald (1971)
Windows and Window Glass in the United States before 1860. Unpublished paper originally prepared for Columbia University, School of Architecture, Technology of Early American Building Course. On file, Columbia University, School of Architecture, New York.

Rothman, Margaret L.(1980)
Flat Glass. In Waverly Plantation: Ethnoarchaeology of a Tenant Farming Community, edited by William H. Adams, pp. 491-495. Report Submitted to Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Atlanta, Georgia.

(1981) Flat Glass. In Bay Springs Mill: Historical Archaeology of a Rural Mississippi Cotton Milling Community, edited by William H. Adams, pp. 491-495. National Technical Information Service, Washington, D.C.

Schaafsma, Curtis F. (1982)
A Window on Santa Fe's History. El Palacio 88(3): 29-39.

Schoen, Christopher M. (1985)
Windows on the Plains: Flat Glass from the Nineteenth Century Plains Frontier. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

(1990) Window Glass on the Plains: An Analysis of Flat Glass Samples from Ten Nineteenth Century Plains Historic Sites. Central Plains Archaeology 2(1):57-90.

Schweig, Bruno (1973)
Mirrors: A Guide to the Manufacture of Mirrors and Reflecting Surfaces. Pelham Books, London.

Scoville, Warren C. (1944)
Growth of the American Glass Industry to 1880. Journal of Political Economy 52(3):193-216.

(1944) Growth of the American Glass Industry to 1880-continued. Journal of Political Economy 52(4):340-355.

(1948) Revolution in Glassmaking. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Shepard, John D. (1991)
Post-medieval Window Glass. In Archaeology in Bath 1976-1985, Peter Davenport, ed., pp. 1:B7-10, Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph, Oxford, UK.

Switosz, Susan. (1985)
A Technical History of Late Nineteenth Century Windows in the United States. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 17(1): 31-37.

Thorpe, W.A. (1949)
English Glass. Adam and Charles Black, London.

Ulman, Elaine B. (1979)
The Eyes of the House. Early American Life 10(4):42-45.

United States Tariff Commission (1929)
Window Glass: Report of the United States Tariff Commission to the President of the United States. Differences in Costs of Production of Window Glass in the United States and in the Principal Competing Country, as Ascertained Pursuant to the Provisions of Section 315 of Title III of the Tariff Act of 1922. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Wackman, John F. (1990)
Analysis of Flat Glass. Wisconsin Archaeologist 71(1-2):88-91.

Walker, John W. (1971)
Excavations of the Arkansas Post Branch of the Bank of the State of Arkansas, Arkansas Post National Monument, Arkansas. Southeast Archaeology Center, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

Warnford Lock, Charles G., ed. (1882)
Spon's Encyclopedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures and Products, Division III. E. Spon, London.

Watt, Robert D. (1978)
Art Glass Window Design in Vancouver: The Role of the Pattern Book. Material History Bulletin (6):74-114.

Weaver, Martin E. (1978)
A Short Note on an Early Sash Window Found at East Hampton, Long Island Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 10(1):55-62.

Weeks, Joseph D.(1883)
Report on the Manufacture of Glass. U.S. Census Office, Tenth Census, 1880. 47th Congress, 2nd Session, House Miscellaneous Document Pt. 2, No. 42 (Serial 2130), pp. 1029-152.

Welsh, Frank S. (1971)
Window Glass. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 3(4):11.

(1980) Eighteenth-Century Black Window Glazing in Philadelphia. Association for the Preservation of Technology Bulletin 12(2):122-123.

Whelan, James P., Jr. (1984)
Flat Glass Analysis of Goodland Cypress Sawmill, Chacahoula, Louisiana. Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Pensacola, Florida.

(1985) Some Comments on the Methodological Assumptions of the Flat Glass Dating Technique. Paper presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Boston, Massachusetts.

White, William G. (1990)
A Window to the Past: Analysis of Flat Glass Recovered from West Point, Nevada. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Whitfeld, Elizabeth (1992)
Glazed Windows in Scotland with Special Reference to the Use of Metals Materials and Traditions in Scottish Building: Essays in Memory of Sonia Hackett. Anne Riches and Geoffrey Stell, eds., pp. 59-65, Regional and Thematic Series, No. 2. Scottish Vernacular Buildings Working Group, Edinburgh.

Wills, Geoffery (1965)
English Looking Glasses: A Study of the Glass, Frames and Makers. A.S. Barnes and Company, New York

Wilson, Kenneth M. (1972)
New England Glass and Glassmaking. Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York.

(1976) Window Glass in America. In Building Early America: Contributions Toward the History of a Great Industry, Charles E. Peterson, ed., pp. 150-165. Chilton Book Company, Radnor, Pennsylvania.

(1982) Window Glass in Historic Houses. American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee.


For Correction, Comments, or additions, please contact:

David Moyer, RPA
Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist
700 Clinton Street Building
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52240
Phone: (319) 335-5702
Email: david-moyer@uiowa.edu

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