Slag and Metallurgy for Historical Archaeologists

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Compiled By James H. Brothers, IV
This Version: February 2001


For Correction, Comments, or additions, please contact:

James H. Brothers
Email: jhbiv@erols.com


A note on using texts. This list is not exhaustive. There are a number of classic texts, some are better than others. Some texts should either not be used, or used with extreme caution. Since my research has been primarily on colonial Virginia, I do not feel qualified to comment on every source Classic texts or ones that can be depended on for accuracy have been bolded. Texts that, in my opinion, should not be relied on, or used with extreme care are underlined. The opinions expressed are entirely my own.

INTERNET

Arch-Metals List
ARCH-METALS@JISCMAIL.AC.UK

Britain and Europe

Historical Metallurgy Society
http://hist-met.org/

Wealden Iron Research Group
http//www.np03.dial.pipex.com/wirg/index.htm

China, Japan, and Korea

Wagner, Donald
Numerous articles and books on the history of iron technology in the Far East.
http://staff.hum.ku.dk/dbwagner/

JOURNALS OF SPECIAL NOTE

IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology

Post-Medieval Archaeology

Historical Metallurgy, The Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society

Industrial Archaeology Review, The Journal of the Association for Industrial Archaeology.

BOOKS, ARTICLES, and PAPERS

Agricola, Georgius (1950 [1556])
De Re Metallica. Herbert Clark and Lou Henry Hoover (editors and translation). Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Albek, Soren, Kim Barslev, Elin Leth, and Katinka Stentoft (1997)
Experiments with Iron Smelting in a Slag-Tapping Furnace. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Nørbach, pp. 93-96. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Avery, Donald H. and Peter R. Schmidt (1979)
A Metallurgical Study of the Iron Bloomery, Particularly as Practiced in Buhaya. Journal of Metals 31(9):14-20.

(1996a) Use of Preheated Air in Ancient and Recent African Iron smelting Furnaces: A Reply to Rehder. In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt, pp. 240-246. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

(1996b) Preheating: Practice or Illusion? In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt, pp. 267-276. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Bachmann, Hans-Gert (1982)
The Identification of Slags From Archaeological Sites. Institute of Archaeology Occasional Publication No. 6. University of London, London.

Barndon, Randi (1996)
Fipa Ironworking and Its Technological Style. In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt, pp. 58-73. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Barraclough, Kenneth C. (1976)
The development of the Cementation Process for the Manufacture of Steel. Post-Medieval Archaeology 10:65-88.

(1991) Steel in the Industrial Revolution. In The Industrial Revolution in Metals, edited by R. F. Tylecote and Joan Day, pp. 261-306. The Institute of Metals, London.

(1991) The Chemistry of Metal Extraction. In The Industrial Revolution in Metals, edited by R. F. Tylecote and Joan Day, pp. 307-311. The Institute of Metals, London.

Bauer, O. and E. Deiss (1915)
The Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Iron and Steel. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.; New York and London.

Bauerman, H. (1890)
A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron: containing Outlines of the History of Iron Manufacture, Methods of Assay and Analysis of Iron Ores, Processes of Manufacture of Iron and Steel, etc., etc. Crosby Lockwood and Son, London.

Bell, I. Lowthian (much taken directly from John Percy) (1884)
Principles of the Manufacture of Iron and Steel, With Some Notes on the Economic Conditions of Their Production. George Routledge & Sons, London and New York.

Bergman. Torbern (1968[1781])
A chemical Essay on the Analysis of Iron. Translated by J.P. Hickey and C.S. Smith. In Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, edited by Cyril Stanley Smith, pp. 165-255. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London.

Biringuccio, Vannoccio (1966 [1540])
The Pirotechnia. Translated and edited by Cyril Stanley Smith and Martha Teach Gnudi. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge.

Birkinbine, John (1879)
The Production of Charcoal for Iron Works. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers VII(May 1878 to February 1879):149-158.

(1884) Forest Destruction. Journal of the United States Association of Charcoal Iron Workers 5:3-4.

(1891) The Development of Pig Iron Manufacture in the United States. Journal of the Franklin Institute. The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia.

Bohm, Ivar (1982 [1927])
A Study of the Blast Furnace Process. Jernkontorets Forskning, Series H No.22. Jernkontorets, Stockholm.

Bowron, William M. (1882)
The Practical Metallurgy of Titaniferous Ores. Transactions of the American Industrial Mining Engineers XI(May 1882 to February 1883):159-164.

Campbell, Harry Huse (1907)
The Manufacture and Properties of Iron and Steel. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York and London.

Craddock, Paul T. (1994)
Agricola and the study of early metallurgy. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 28(1):1-6. Institute of Materials, London.

Cramer, Johann Andreas (1968 [1739])
The Preparation of Steel out of Iron by cementation and by Fusion. Translated by Cromwell Mortimer. In Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, edited by Cyril Stanley Smith, pp. 108-117. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London.

Datta, Kanyakumari; Paresh Kumar Sen; Shyam Sunder Gupta; and Amit Chatterjee (1993)
Effect of titania on the characteristics of blast furnace slags. Steel Research Vol. 64(5):232-38.

DeVries, R. C., R. Roy, and E. F. Osborn (1955)
Phase Equilibria in the System CaO -TiO2-SiO2. Journal of the American Ceramic Society Vol. 38(5):158-71.

Egleston, T. (1880)
The Manufacture of Charcoal in Kilns. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 8(May 1879- February 1880): 73-97.

Espelund, Arne (1997a)
An Attempt to Define Archaeo-Metallurgy. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Nørbach, pp. 7-14. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

(1997b) The "Evenstad" Process- Description, Excavation, Experiment and Metallurgical Evaluation. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 47-58. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

(1997c) Ironmaking in Trøndelag During the Roman and Pre-Roman Iron Age. An Archaeo-Metallurgical Evaluation. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Nørbach, pp. 103-114. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Fairbairn, William (1865)
Iron: Its History, Properties and Processes of Manufacture. Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh.

Fells, S. (1983)
The Structure and Composition of Ferrous Process Slags. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Aston in Birmingham, Birmingham, U.K.

Fine, H. A. and S. Arac (1980)
Effect of minor constituents on liquidus temperature of synthetic blast-furnace slags. Ironmaking and Steelmaking Vol. 7 (4):160-66.

Forbes, David (1869)
On the Composition and Metallurgy of Some Norwegian Titaniferous Iron Ores. Chemical News (U.S. Edition) Vol. XVIII(471):69-71.

Forsythe, Robert (1913)
The Blast Furnace and the Manufacture of Pig Iron. Williams Company.

(1922) The Blast Furnace and the Manufacture of Pig Iron.: An Elementary Treatise for the Use of the Metallurgical Student and the Furnaceman. UPC Book Company, Inc., New York.

Gordon, Robert B. (1982)
The metallurgical museum of Yale college and nineteenth century ferrous metallurgy in New England. Journal of Metals (JOM) 34:26-33.

(1983) Materials for manufacturing: the response of the Connecticut iron industry to limited resources and technological change. Technology and Culture 24:602-34.

(1988) Strength and structure of wrought iron. Archeomaterials 2:109-137.

(1992) Industrial Archeology of American Iron and Steel. IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology, Vol. 18(1&2):5-18.

(1995) Material Evidence of Ironmaking Techniques. IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology, Vol. 21(2):69-80.

(1996) American Iron 1607-1900. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.

(1997) Process Deduced From Ironmaking Wastes and Artefacts. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:9-18.

(2000) Analysis and Interpretation of Artifacts in Industrial Archeology. IA 26(1):103-111.

(2001) A Landscape Transformed: The Ironmaking District of Salisbury, Connecticut. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.

Gordon, Robert B. and David J. Killick (1993)
Adaptation of technology to culture and environment: bloomery smelting in America and Africa. Technology and Culture 34:243-70.

Gordon, Robert B. and N. J. Van der Merwe (1984)
Metallographic Study of Iron Artifacts from the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa. Archaeometry 26:108-127.

Goucher, Candice L. and Eugenia W. Herbert (1996)
The Blooms of Banjeli: Technology and Gender in West African Iron Making. In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt, pp. 40-57. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Greenwood, William Henry (1902)
Steel and Iron: Comprising the Practice and Theory of the Several Methods Pursued in Their Manufacture, and of Their Treatment in the Rolling Mills, the Forge, and the Foundry. Cassell and Company, Limited, London, Paris, New York, and Melbourne.

(1907) Iron Its Sources, Properties, and Manufacture. Revised and partially rewritten by A. Humboldt Sexton. David McKay, Publishers, Philadelphia.

Gtignon, Pierre Clement (1968 [1775])
On the Metamorphoses of Iron. Translated by P. Boucher and C.S. Smith. In Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, edited by Cyril Stanley Smith, pp. 119-164. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London.

Hammersley, G. (1973)
The Charcoal Iron Industry and its Fuel, 1540-1750. The Economic History Review, 2d Series XXVI(4):593-613.

Handfield, G. and G. G. Charette (1971)
Viscosity and structure of industrial high TiO2 slags. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 10(3):235-243.

Harvey, David (1986)
A Progress Report on the Reconstruction of the American Bloomery Process. Paper prepared for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg, VA.

(1988) Reconstructing the American Bloomery Process. The Colonial Williamsburg Historic Trades Annual 1:19-38.

(1989a) Replicating America's Earliest Bloomery Process, Part One. The Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society [JOM] 41(6):46-47.

(1989b) Replicating America's Earliest Bloomery Process, Part Two. The Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society [JOM] 41(7):44-46.

Hauptman, A. and U. Yalcin (1995)
Archaeometallurgie der Eisens auf der Schwaebischen Alb. Beitraege zur Eisenverhuettung auf der Schwaebische Alb, 1995.

Hedges, R.E.M. and CJ Salter (1979)
Source determination of iron currency bars through analysis of the slag inclusions. Archaeometry 21(2):161-175.

Heine, R. J. (1951)
Oxidation-Reduction Principles Controlling the Composition of Molten Cast Irons. Transactions of the American Foundrymens's Society 59:121-137.

Heskel, Dennis and Carl Clifford Lamberg-Karlovsky (1980)
An Alternative Sequence for the Development of Metallurgy: Tepe Yahya, Iran. In The Coming of the Age of Iron, edited by Theodore A. Wertime and James D. Muhly, pp. 229-266. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Hjarthner-Holder, Eva, Peter Kresten, and Lena Larsson (1997)
From Known to Unknown. Application of well-Known experimental Iron Production Results to Archaeological Materials. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 15-26. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Hofman, H. O. (1904)
An Outline of the Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. Thomas Todd, Printer; Boston.

Horne, Lee (1982)
Fuel for the Metal Worker. Expedition 25(1):8-13. The University Museum, Philadelphia.

Horstmann, D. and F. Toussaint (1989)
Two Brazilian iron works of the early 19th century Part 2, Metal and slag analyses. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 23(2):114-119. Institute of Materials, London.

Howe, Henry Marion (1906)
Iron, Steel, and Other Alloys. McGraw Publishing Company, New York.

Ihrig, Harry K. (1941)
Outline of the Metallurgy of Iron & Steel. Globe Steel Tubes Co, Milwaukee.

Ingham, John N. (1991)
Making Iron and Steel. Ohio State University, Columbus.

Johnson, J. E. (1918)
The Principles, Operation and Products of the Blast Furnace. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York and London.

Joosten, Ineke, Ben Jansen, and Henk Kars (1997)
The Use of a Model to Describe Bloomery Production in the Netherlands. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 37-46. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Joosten, Ineke, Matthijs van Nie, and Patrice de Rijk (1997)
Experiments with a Slag-Tapping Furnace at the Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 81-92. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Josephson, G. W., F. Sillers, Jr., and D. G. Runner (1949)
Iron Blast-Furnace Slag: Production, Processing, and Uses. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 479. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Jousse, Mathurin (1968 [1627])
The Selection of Iron and Steel, and the Manner of Hardening It by Quenching. In Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, edited by Cyril Stanley Smith, pp. 41-62. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London.

Kanyakumari, Datta, Paresh Kumar Sen, Shyam Sunder Gupta, and Amit Chatterjee (1993)
Effect of titania on the characteristics of blast furnace slags. Steel Research 64(5):232-38. Archiv fur das Eisenhuttenwesen.

Karsten, C. J. B. (1816)
Handbuch der Eisenhuttenkunde. Halle.

Kato, Makoto and Susumu Minowa (1969)
Viscosity Measurement of Molten Slag- Properties of Slag at Elevated Temperature (Part 1). Transactions of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan 9:31-38.

Killick, D.J. (1990)
Technology in its social setting: bloomery iron smelting at Kasungu, Malawi, 1860-1940. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, New Haven.

(1996) On claims for "Advanced" Ironworking Technology in Precolonial Africa. In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt, pp. 247-266. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Killick, D.J. and R. B. Gordon (1987)
Microstructures of puddling slags from Fontley, England, and Roxbury, Connecticut. The Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 21:28-36.

(1988) The Mechanism of Iron Production in the Bloomery Furnace. Proceedings of the 26th International Archaeometry Symposium. Toronto, May 1988.

Lankford, William T., Jr. (1985)
The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel. 10th Edition. United States Steel Corporation, Herbick & Held, Pittsburgh.

Lyngstrom, Henriette S. (1997)
In the Borderland of Archaeology- Experimental Forging. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 27-36. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Malone, Patrick (2000)
Experimental Industrial Archaeology: Imitation in Pursuit of Authenticity. IA 26(1):71-84.

Mihok, Lubomir, Peter Cengel, Alois Holly, and Frantisek Javorsky (1987)
The study of early iron production in Spis. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, 21( 2):81-85.

Mikkelsen, Peter H. (1997)
Straw in slag-Pit Furnaces. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 63-66. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Morizane, Y., B. Ozturk and R. J. Fruehan (1999)
Thermodynamics of TiOx in Blast Furnace-Type Slags. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 30B (February 1999):29-43.

Morton, G. R. and J. Wingrove (1969)
Constitution of bloomery slags: Part I: Roman. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 207:1556-64.

(1972) Constitution of bloomery slags: Part II: Medieval. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 210:478-88.

Muan, A. and E. F. Osborn (1965)
Phase Equilibria among Oxides in Steelmaking. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.

Norbach, Lars Chr. (1997)
An experiment Using wood as Fuel in a Slag-Pit Furnace. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 59-62. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Ohno, Atsumi and H. U. Ross (1963)
Liquidus-Temperature Measurements in the Lime-Titania-Alumina-Silica system. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 2(3):243-258.

(1963a) Optimum Slag Composition for the Blast-Furnace Smelting of Titaniferous Ores. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 2(3):259-279. Mines Branch of the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa.

Percy, John (1864)
Metallurgy: The Art of Extracting Metals from Their Ores, and Adapting Them to Various Purposes of Manufacture. Iron and Steel. John Murray, Albemarle Street, London.

(1870) The Metallurgy of Lead, Including Desilverization and Cupellation. John Murray, Albemarle Street, London.

Pleiner, Radomir (1980)
Early Iron Metallurgy in Europe. In The Coming of the Age of Iron, edited by Theodore A. Wertime and James D. Muhly, pp. 375-416. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Pollard, A. Mark and Carl Heron (1996)
Archaeological Chemistry. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.

della Porta, Giovanni Battista (1968 [1589])
Of Tempering Steel. In Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, edited by Cyril Stanley Smith, pp. 29-39. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London. Reaumur, Rene and Antoine Ferchault (1968 [1722])
On Methods of Recognizing Defects and Good Quality in Steel and on Several Ways of Comparing Grades of Steel. Translated by A. G. Sisco. In Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, edited by Cyril Stanley Smith, pp. 63-106. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London.

Rehder, J.E. (1979)
Heat Economy in the Cupola. Foundry Management and Technology May:44.

(1986) Primitive furnaces and the development of metallurgy. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 20(2): 87-92.

(1987) The change from charcoal to coke in iron smelting. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 21(1):37-43.

(1996) Use of Preheated Air in Primitive Furnaces: Comments on Views of Avery and Schmidt. In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt, pp. 234-239. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

(1998) Abraham Darby and Coke in the Blast Furnace. Iron and Steelmaker (I&SM), December 1998:29-33.

(1999) The Origin of the Blast Furnace. Iron and Steelmaker (I&SM)) 26(8):23-27.

Richards, William Allyn (1915)
Forging of Iron and Steel. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.

Richardson, M. T. (1978)
Practical Blacksmithing. Crown Publishers, New York.

Richards, Robert H. and Richard W. Lodge (1888)
Experiments Illustrating the descent of the Charge in an Iron Blast-Furnace. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers 16(May 1887- February 1888):149-62.

Rosenqvist, Terkel (1983)
Principles of Extractive Metallurgy. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Rossi, Auguste J. (1893)
Titaniferous Ores in the Blast-Furnace. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers 21(February 1892 to February 1893):833-67.

(1897) The Effect of Additions of Titaniferous to Phosphoric Iron-Ores in the Blast-Furnace. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers 26(February 1896 to October 1896):133-38.

Rostoker, William and Bennet Bronson (1990)
Pre-Industrial Iron: Its Technology and Ethnology. Archeomaterials Monograph No. 1, Philadelphia.

Rostoker, William and James Dvorak (1990)
Wrought Irons: Distinguishing Between Processes. Archeomaterials 4:153-166

Rozdzienski, Walenty (1976 [1612])
Officina Ferraria: a Polish poem of 1612 describing the noble craft of ironwork. Translated by Stefan Pluszczewski; edited by Waclaw Rozanski and Cyril Stanley Smith; introd. by Jerzy Piaskowski. Society for the History of Technology and M.I.T. Press, Cambridge.

Schinz, Carl (1870)
Researches on the Action of the Blast Furnace. E & F. N. Spon, London.

Seetharam, S.; Du Sichen and J. Y. Zhang (1999)
The Computer-Based Study of Multicomponent Slag Viscosities. JOM (Journal of Metals) 51(8):38-40.

Sim, David (1998)
Beyond the bloom : bloom refining and iron artifacts production in the Roman world. Edited by Isabel Ridge. BAR International Series 725. Archaeopress, Oxford.

Smith, Cyril Stanley (1968)
Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London.

(1981) Structural Hierarchy in Art, Science and History. A Search for Structure. Selected Essays on Science, Art and History. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge.

Stankus, Jonas (1997)
The Technology of Iron Artifacts from the Castle of Vilnius. In Early Iron Production- Archaeology, Technology and Experiments, edited by Lars Chr. Norbach, pp. 133-141. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark.

Starley, David (1999)
Determining the Technological Origins of Iron and Steel. Journal of Archaeological Science 26:1127-1133.

Stoughton, Bradley (1908)
The Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. Hill Publishing Company, New York and London.

(1928) The Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York and London.

Straker, Ernest (1931)
Wealdon Iron. G. Bell & Sons, London.

(1969) Wealdon Iron. Augustus M. Kelley, Publishers, New York.

Swann, Charles P. (1997)
Recent applications of nuclear microprobes to the study of art objects and archaeological artifacts. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B (NIM B) 130:289-96. North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Swann, Charles P. and Stuart J. Fleming (1985)
The Application of PIXE Spectrometry to Bronze Analysis: Practical Considerations. MASCA Journal 3(5):142-49.

(1988) Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry in Archaeology. Scanning Microscopy 2(1):197-207.

Sweetser, Ralph H. (1938)
Blast Furnace Practice. McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., NY and London.

Szekely, Julian (ed) (1972)
Blast Furnace Technology, Science And Practice. Marcel Dekker, Inc.; New York.

Theophilus (1979)
On Divers Arts. John G. Hawthorne and Cyril Stanley Smith trans. Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Tholander, Erik (1987)
Experimental Studies on Early Iron-Making. Ph.D. dissertation prepared for The Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Process Metallurgy, Stockholm.

Tholander, Erik and Stig Blomgren (1986a)
Some aspects of the origin of the blast furnace. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 20(2):79-85.

(1986b) Influence of the Ore Smelting Course on the Slag Microstructures at Early Ironmaking, usable as Identification Basis for the Furnace Process Employed. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 15(1986):151-160.

Turkdogan, E. T. (1983)
Physiochemical Properties of Molten Slags and Glasses. The Metals Society, London.

Turner, Thomas (1900)
The Metallurgy of Iron. 2nd Edition. Charles Griffin & Company, Limited, London.

(1908) The Metallurgy of Iron. 3rd Edition. Charles Griffin & Company, Limited, London.

Tylecote, R. F. (1962)
Metallurgy in Archaeology: A Prehistory of Metallurgy in the British Isles. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., London.

(1965) Iron Smelting in Pre-Industrial Communities. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 203(April):340-348.

(1968) Solid Phase Welding of Metals. St. Martin's Press, London.

(1969) Recent Work on Early Ironmaking Sites in the Stamford Area. Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 4(1):24-27.

(1975) The Origin of Iron Smelting in Africa. West African Journal of Archaeology 5:1-9.

(1976) A History of Metallurgy. The Metals Society, London.

(1977) The Downpatrick Bloom. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 11(2):83.

(1980) Furnaces, Crucibles, and Slags. In The Coming of the Age of Iron, edited by Theodore A. Wertime and James D. Muhly, pp. 183-228. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

(1981) The Medieval Smith and His Methods. In Mediaeval Industry, edited by D. W. Crossley, pp. 42-50. Council for British Archaeology Research Report No. 40, Oxford.

(1986) The Prehistory of Metallurgy in the British Isles. The Institute of Metals, London.

(1987) The Early History of Metallurgy in Europe. Longman, London and New York.

(1991) Iron in the Industrial Revolution. In The Industrial Revolution in Metals, edited by R. F. Tylecote and Joan Day, pp. 200-260. The Institute of Metals, London.

Tylecote, R. F., J.M. Austin, and A.E. Wraith (1971)
The Mechanism of the Bloomery Process in Shaft Furnaces. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 209:342-363.

Tylecote, R. F. and Joan Day (editors) (1991)
The Industrial Revolution in Metals, The Institute of Metals, London.

Tylecote, R. F. and E. Owles (1960)
A Second Century Smelting Site at Ashwicken. Norfolk Archaeology 32(2):142-162.

Unglik, Henry (1987)
Metallurgical investigations of cast irons from Les Forges du Saint-Maurice Ironworks, Quebec, Canada. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 21(1):1-7.

Vandernonde, Charles Auguste, Claude Louis Berthollet, and Gaspard Monge (1968 [1786])
On the Different States of Iron. Translated by Anne S. Denman and C.S. Smith. In Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, edited by Cyril Stanley Smith, pp. 275-348. The Society for the History of Technology and The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge and London.

Verein Deutscher Eisenhuttenleute (ed.) (1981)
Schlackenatlas. Verlag Stahleisen MBH., Dusseldorf.

White, John R. (1977)
X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis of an Early Ohio Blast Furnace Slag. Ohio Journal of Science 77(4):186-189.

(1978) Archaeological and Chemical Evidence for the Earliest American Use of Raw Coal as a Fuel in Ironmaking. Journal of Archaeological Science 5(4):391-393.

(1980) Preliminary Archaeological Examination of Ohio's First Blast Furnace: The Eaton (Hopewell). Ohio Journal of Science 80(2):52-58.

(1980) The Eaton Blast Furnace. I 21(4):513-514.

(1980) Historic Blast Furnace Slags: Archaeological and Metallurgical Analysis. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 14(2):55-64.

(1981) New Light on Early American Ironmaking: The Eaton Furnace. Journal of the Historic Metallurgy Society 15(2):88-93.

(1982) Analysis and Evaluations of the Raw Material Used in the Eaton (Hopewell) Furnace. Ohio Journal of Science 82(1):23-27.

(1983) Early Blast Furnace Charcoals: Analysis and Economics. Conference on Historic Sites Archaeology Papers 15:106-122.

(1987) Photomicrographic Analysis of an Early American Iron. (with Richard Jones) Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 21(2):92-95.

(1996) Rebirth and Demise of Ohio's Earliest Blast Furnace: An Archaeological Postmortem. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 21(2):217-245.

White, John and Richard Jones (1985)
The Eaton (Hopewell) Furnace Iron: A Metallurgical Analysis. MASCA Journal 3(6):182-185.

(1987) Photomicrographic examination of an early American iron. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 21(2):92-95.

Wakelin, David H. (ed) (early history should be used with caution) (1999)
The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel, Ironmaking Volume. 11th Edition. The AISE Steel Foundation, Pittsburg.


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James H. Brothers
Email: jhbiv@erols.com

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